New Approach Methodologies
New Approach Methodologies (NAMs) are any technology, methodology, approach, or combination that can provide information on chemical hazard and risk assessment to avoid the use of animal testing. Traditional approaches to understanding toxicity of chemicals or environmental conditions have relied on toxicity studies that use laboratory animals (in vivo). Scientific and technological advances have led to the development of non-animal (in vitro / in chemico) or computer (in silico) methodologies or approaches that can be used, avoiding the use of intact animals.â¯NAMs are advanced through sciences such as OMICS and use of High-throughput Testing Screening (HTS) methods. NAMs also includ alternative to animal testing methods as well as cross-species extrapolation methods.
- New Approach Methodologies for the Endocrine Activity Toolbox: Environmental Assessment for Fish and Amphibians
ET&C 42: 757–777 (2023)
- Factors Affecting the Perception of New approach Methodologies (NAMs) in the Ecotoxicology Community
IEAM 16: 269–281 (2020)
Alternative to Animal Testing
Alternative to animal testing methods support reducing the numbers of animals used in testing, refining procedures to minimize pain, suffering, and distress and replacing the use of animals whenever possible.â¯
- Investigating Endocrine-Disrupting Properties of Chemicals in Fish and Amphibians: Opportunities to Apply the 3Rs
IEAM 18: 442–458 (2022)
- Key Opportunities to Replace, Reduce, and Refine Regulatory Fish Acute Toxicity Tests ET&C 39: 2076–2089
High-throughput screening (HTS) methods make increased and more effective use of in vitro and small-scale in vivo methods to generate ecotoxicity data in a cost-effective way.
- High-throughput Screening and Environmental Risk Assessment: State of the Science and Emergin Applications
ET&C 38: 12–26 (2018)
- Environmental Surveillance and Monitoring—The Next Frontiers for High-Throughput Toxicology
ETC 35: 513–525 (2016)
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