The Unfolding Story of Hyalella Diets and Waters ...
In November of 2011 David Mount of the U.S. EPA wrote a memo to the Great Lakes National Program Office in regards to suggested requirements and performance criteria for laboratories conducting sediment toxicity tests. This memo was also shared with the HAAG and under the heading of "Demonstration of food/water suitability for Hyaella azteca":
"Demonstration of food/water suitability for Hyalella azteca. Past research has indicated that many standard test waters that can be successfully used with many aquatic species are not suitable for Hyalella, notably the standard reconstituted waters derived from formulas originally published by Marking and Dawson (1973) and provided in EPA manuals for effluent toxicity testing and in many ASTM toxicity testing standards. Experience inour laboratory showed that while unamended Lake Superior water could support adequate control performance of Hyalella when tested with control sediment, this same water did not support good performance when tested over a more neutral substrate, such as quartz sand. This suggeststhat the food and water alone were not sufficient to support good performance of Hyalella, and that natural sediment was necessary to provide for some of their requirements. This creates a possibility that organism performance in field-collected sediments might be influenced by factors other than the toxicity of any contaminants present (Kemble et al. 1998). At this time, there is insufficient information to simply specify compositions of water or food that will (with certainty) be adequate. Instead, I am recommending a performance-based demonstration. This involvesconducting a 42-d experiment following the guidelines of the 42-d Hyalella test method, inwhich Hyalella are held under test conditions (same food and water regimes) except that the substrate is a thin layer (e.g., 5 mL) of clean quartz sand. If these conditions yield Hyalella 42-dsurvival of 80% or higher, weights of greater than 0.3 mg dry weight/individual at 28 days and 0.5 mg dry weight/individual at 42 days, and mean reproduction of more than 4 young perfemale, I would consider this a demonstration that the food and water being used is adequate (Hockett et al. 2011, Ivey et al. 2011)."
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 2011. Standard test method for measuring the toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants with freshwater invertebrates (E1706-05). InASTM Annual Book of Standards, Vol. 11.06, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
Hockett, JR, Highland TL, Hoff DJ, Mount DR, Norberg-King TJ, Valenti TR. Modifying foodsand feeding regimes to optimize the performance of Hyalella azteca during chronic toxicity tests. Presented at the 32nd meeting of SETAC North America, Boston MA, November 13-17, 2011.
Ivey CD, Ingersoll CG, Kemble NE, Kunz JK, Mount DR, Hockett JR. Evaluation of theinfluence of bromide or iodide on the performance the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstitutedwaters. Presented at the 32nd meeting of SETAC North America, Boston MA, November 13-17,2011.
Kemble NE, Brunson EL, Canfield TJ, Dwyer FJ, Ingersoll CG. 1998. Assessing sedimenttoxicity from navigational pools of the upper Mississippi River using a 28-d Hyalella azteca test. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 35:181-190.
Marking LL, Dawson VK. 1973. Toxicity of quinaldine sulfate to fish. USFWS Investigations in Fish Control, No. 48, Washington, DC, 8 p.